Q is for Quark
Quarks are elementary physical particles: building-blocks that combine to form the protons and neutrons that in turn make up atoms. I love the fact that the existence of quarks was inferred before there was any observational evidence for them. There are, in fact, six types or 'flavours' of quark, whose names are delightful in themselves: up, down, strange, charm, bottom and top.
The name is actually taken from James Joyce's Finnegan's Wake, in which this line appears:
Three quarks for Muster Mark!
Among other things, also a sort of cheese and, most importantly of all, a Ferengi character in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine.
Archaeopteryx Blunderbuss Chthonic Dreadnought Entropy Fulgurite Gargantua Humbucking Ichthyic Juggernaut Kappa Labyrinthine Megrim Numinous Ophidian Pandemonium Quark